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Author Topic: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"  (Read 4206 times)

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Offline tryingtostay

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"Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« on: June 15, 2015, 07:17:22 pm »
Take your vitamin D ;)


Article


Vitamin D plays an important part in the human immune response and deficiency can leave individuals less able to fight infections like HIV-1. Now an international team of researchers has found that high-dose vitamin D supplementation can reverse the deficiency and also improve immune response.

"Vitamin D may be a simple, cost-effective intervention, particularly in resource-poor settings, to reduce HIV-1 risk and disease progression," the researchers report in today's (June 15) online issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers looked at two ethnic groups in Cape Town, South Africa, to see how seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, dietary vitamin D, genetics, and pigmentation affected vitamin D levels, and whether high-dose supplementation improved deficiencies and the cell's ability to repel HIV-1.

"Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal ultraviolet B regime and one of the world's highest rates of HIV-1 infection, peaking in young adults, making it an appropriate location for a longitudinal study like this one," said Nina Jablonski, Evan Pugh Professor of Anthropology, Penn State, who led the research.

One hundred healthy young individuals divided between those of Xhosa ancestry—whose ancestors migrated from closer to the equator into the Cape area—and those self-identified as having Cape Mixed ancestry—a complex admixture of Xhosa, Khoisan, European, South Asian and Indonesian populations—were recruited for this study. The groups were matched for age and smoking. The Xhosa, whose ancestors came from a place with more ultraviolet B radiation, have the darkest skin pigmentation, while the Khoisan—the original inhabitants of the Cape—have adapted to the seasonally changing ultraviolet radiation in the area and are lighter skinned. The Cape Mixed population falls between the Xhosa and Khoisan in skin pigmentation levels.

Cape Town is situated in the southern hemisphere at about the same distance from the equator as the Florida panhandle, slightly more than 30 degrees latitude. Ultraviolet B levels show a winter decline anywhere above 30 degrees latitude, so Cape Town has a definite winter with low levels of the ultraviolet B wavelengths needed to produce precursor vitamin D3. Add to this the fact that people now spend more time indoors during winter and wear more clothing, and exposure to ultraviolet B in winter may be insufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency.

The researchers note that sunscreen use is not a factor in these populations. However, the darker the skin's pigment, the more ultraviolet B radiation necessary to trigger the precursor chemicals in the body to produce vitamin D.

"The skin of the indigenous people of the Cape, the Khoisan, is considerably lighter than that of either study group and may represent a long-established adaptation to seasonal UVB," according to the researchers. "The darker skin of both study populations—Xhosia and Cape mixed—denotes a degree of mismatch between skin pigmentation and environmental UVB resulting from their recent migration into the region."

The researchers found that both groups exhibited vitamin D deficiency during the winter, with women in both groups being more deficient, on average, than the men. Because of vitamin D's impact on the immune system, the researchers provided six weeks of supplemental vitamin D3 to 30 of the Xhosa participants, which brought 77 percent of the participants to optimal vitamin D status.

Jablonski and her team determined that diet, genetics and other variables played very small roles in vitamin D status, although some genetic variations did influence the success of supplementation.

To test how vitamin D status affected the immune system and HIV-1 in particular, the researchers exposed blood samples from Xhosa and Cape mixed participants taken during the summer and winter when the subjects were vitamin D sufficient or deficient. They found that after nine days, the winter blood samples had greater infection than those taken in summer. After six weeks of vitamin D supplementation, the Xhosa blood sample levels of HIV-1 infection were the same as those during the summer.

"High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating white blood cells and reversed winter-associated anemia," the researchers reported. "Vitamin D3 presents a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity."

Offline xunil

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Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #1 on: June 15, 2015, 07:18:27 pm »
I was diagnosed with a vitamin D deficiency at the same time as my HIV positive result.  So yeah, definitely take your vitamin D and get some sun.  :)
Diagnosed April 2015
First labs and specialist visit April 2015
Initial appt and labs: CD4 560 and VL 18,000
Started Triumeq June 2015
VL UD after 30 days on Triumeq, CD4 slowly rising.

Offline tryingtostay

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  • Posts: 591
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #2 on: June 15, 2015, 07:31:13 pm »
I've included Vitamin D3 in my occasional supplementation over the years.  10k IU use to make me feel fantastic.  Before I knew I was infected I started noticing it wasn't doing what it use to do for me.   I wonder if it had an effect on my first few blood count/numbers before I started meds?  I remember at the peak of summer 14' my old doctor took a count (CD4 & VL) and it was UD and I wasn't on meds then. 

Offline Jmarksto

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  • Posts: 667
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #3 on: June 16, 2015, 10:06:01 am »
Thanks for posting this Tryingtostay. I appreciate the conclusion, although it would have been interesting to see more quantitative data/results.  My doc prescribed 2000 IU of vitamin D daily when I went on meds.


Thanks again
03/15/12 Negative
06/15/12 Positive
07/11/12 CD4 790          VL 4,000
08/06/12 CD4 816/38%   VL 49,300
08/20/12 Started Complera
11/06/12 CD4   819/41% VL 38
02/11/13 CD4   935/41% VL UD
06/06/13 CD4   816/41% VL UD
10/28/13 CD4 1131/45% VL 25
02/25/14 CD4   792/37% VL UD
07/09/14 CD4 1004/39% VL UD
11/03/14 CD4   711/34% VL UD
03/13/15 CD4   833/36% VL UD
04/??/15 Truvada & Tivicay
06/01/15 CD4 1100/50% VL UD
10/16/15 CD4   826/43% VL UD
??/??/2017 Descov & Tivicay
2017 VL UD, CD4 stable around 850
2018 VL UD, CD4 stable around 850

Offline Wade

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  • Posts: 3,447
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #4 on: June 16, 2015, 10:57:31 am »
Hi ,
I had a vitamins d deficiency also ,in fact it was non existent.
I was on 50,000 IU twice a week for three months ,now I
take 5,000 IU daily to keep it in range .
Vitamins D from what I understand is actually a hormone and
is important for good over all health.
This is from my own personal experience.
Wade
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Offline tednlou2

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  • Posts: 5,730
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #5 on: June 16, 2015, 03:20:31 pm »
The D2 and D3 continues to confuse me.  In my prescription 50,000 I.U., it is D2.  I thought D3 was the already activated form.  I've been told while supplementation helps (I know it does, because it has raised mine), that you really need sunlight to really get it activated and do the best.  So, that goes back to the D2 and D3 confusion I have. 

Mine was low, around 11.  I got it up.  Like so many do with many meds, I stopped it when I got it up.  It is now back to 13, so I am restarting the big dose and will just continue to take the daily maintainence dose forever, I guess. 

Offline xunil

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  • Posts: 98
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #6 on: June 18, 2015, 12:03:16 am »
I found this interesting on the subject of D2 vs D3: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/589256_4

My doctor prescribed vitamin D2.  Now I'm kinda curious to see if my ID doctor will give me D3 instead if I bring this up.
Diagnosed April 2015
First labs and specialist visit April 2015
Initial appt and labs: CD4 560 and VL 18,000
Started Triumeq June 2015
VL UD after 30 days on Triumeq, CD4 slowly rising.

Offline tednlou2

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  • Posts: 5,730
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #7 on: June 18, 2015, 12:41:34 am »
I found this interesting on the subject of D2 vs D3: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/589256_4

My doctor prescribed vitamin D2.  Now I'm kinda curious to see if my ID doctor will give me D3 instead if I bring this up.

That link took me to a page, where you could sign up for an account.  Can you give the summary?

Offline xunil

  • Member
  • Posts: 98
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #8 on: June 18, 2015, 12:47:54 am »
Weird, I guess my ad blockers let me read it without that, here's the full text:

Vitamin D2 and/or Vitamin D3

There are two types of vitamin D supplements available for over-the-counter purchase (vitamin D2 and vitamin D3). Vitamin D3 is the type that most experts believe should be utilized in clinical practice (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). Vitamin D2 is also known as "ergocalciferol," and vitamin D3 is also known as "cholecalciferol." This is important for patients who have purchased a dietary supplement that does not indicate the specific type of vitamin D in the product by number but have listed the scientific name. Most experts now believe that the only form that should be purchased is vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 is also very acceptable, but in the author’s opinion, most individuals should switch to D3. There is a plethora of logical reasons for advocating the use of vitamin D3 over vitamin D2 dietary supplements (Wolpowitz, & Gilchrest, 2006), including:

UVB light from the sun strikes the skin, and humans synthesize vitamin D3, so it is the most "natural" form. Human beings do not make vitamin D2, and most healthy fish contain vitamin D3.

Vitamin D3 is the same price as vitamin D2.

Vitamin D3 may be less toxic than D2 because higher concentrations of D2 circulate in the blood when consumed (compared to vitamin D3). It does not bind as well to the receptors in the human tissues compared to vitamin D3.

Vitamin D3 is the more potent form of vitamin D, which is a potential benefit. For example, obesity tends to lower blood levels of vitamin D, so a more potent form is needed.

Vitamin D3 is more stable on the shelf compared to D2, and is more likely to remain active for a longer period of time and when exposed to different conditions (temperature, humidity, and storage). This is perhaps why the amount of vitamin D2 in certain fortified food products have been significantly lower than that advertised on the label in numerous instances.

Vitamin D3 has been the most utilized form of vitamin D in clinical trials, and there have only been a few clinical trials of vitamin D2 to prevent bone fractures in adults.

Vitamin D3 is more effective at raising and maintaining the vitamin D blood test (again, D2 binds less tightly to the vitamin D receptors in the body; therefore, D2 does not circulate as long in the body, which means it has a shorter half-life).

Vitamin D2 is a fungus/yeast-derived product, and it was first produced in the early 1920s by exposing foods to ultraviolet light (Wolpowitz & Gilchrest, 2006). This process was patented and licensed to pharmaceutical companies. Currently, many major prescription forms of vitamin D are actually vitamin D2 and not vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 is synthetically made from radiating a compound (ergosterol) from the mold ergot. Vitamin D3 is made commercially and synthetically in a similar way that it is produced intrinsically in human and animal skin when exposed to UVB light. Wool sources of 7-dehydrocholesterol are used (from cholesterol), and irradiatied to form active vitamin D3. Vegetarians or especially vegans may be opposed to the use of vitamin D3 supplementation because it is derived from an animal source, and these individuals should be guided to the vitamin D2 form. Multivitamins have either vitamin D2 or D3, but many companies are now utilizing mostly vitamin D3. Cod liver oil has vitamin D3 in it.

Rickets, a defect in bone growth in infancy and childhood, was first identified in 1650 (Welch, Bergstrom, & Tsang, 2000). It was not until 1922 that medical research demonstrated that something in cod liver oil prevented and cured rickets. Additionally, vitamin D2 added to milk in the United States and Europe in the 1930s essentially eliminated rickets (disease of weak bones in children) or osteomalacia (same disease of weak bones but in adults). Currently, fortification with vitamin D2 or D3 has continued to keep rickets scarce in North America. The minimum amount of vitamin D needed to prevent rickets is 100 IU (2.5 mcg) per day in infants with little to no sun exposure.
Diagnosed April 2015
First labs and specialist visit April 2015
Initial appt and labs: CD4 560 and VL 18,000
Started Triumeq June 2015
VL UD after 30 days on Triumeq, CD4 slowly rising.

Offline titik

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  • Posts: 89
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #9 on: June 18, 2015, 09:53:11 pm »
Will being under the sun quite often be the same as Vitamin D supplementation? I'm pretty active outdoors almost everyday here in sunny Los Angeles.

Offline xunil

  • Member
  • Posts: 98
Re: "Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1"
« Reply #10 on: June 18, 2015, 11:16:09 pm »
Will being under the sun quite often be the same as Vitamin D supplementation? I'm pretty active outdoors almost everyday here in sunny Los Angeles.

One NP had told me that 20 minutes a day in the sun is enough to maintain, but that if you are deficient that the synthesis isn't enough to get you out of it.
Diagnosed April 2015
First labs and specialist visit April 2015
Initial appt and labs: CD4 560 and VL 18,000
Started Triumeq June 2015
VL UD after 30 days on Triumeq, CD4 slowly rising.

 


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