Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.
November 21, 2017, 07:29:18 AM

Login with username, password and session length

  • Total Posts: 722587
  • Total Topics: 58721
  • Online Today: 343
  • Online Ever: 1421
  • (August 13, 2016, 05:18:44 AM)
Users Online
Users: 5
Guests: 294
Total: 299


Welcome to the POZ Community Forums, a round-the-clock discussion area for people with HIV/AIDS, their friends/family/caregivers, and others concerned about HIV/AIDS.  Click on the links below to browse our various forums; scroll down for a glance at the most recent posts; or join in the conversation yourself by registering on the left side of this page.

Privacy Warning:  Please realize that these forums are open to all, and are fully searchable via Google and other search engines. If you are HIV positive and disclose this in our forums, then it is almost the same thing as telling the whole world (or at least the World Wide Web). If this concerns you, then do not use a username or avatar that are self-identifying in any way. We do not allow the deletion of anything you post in these forums, so think before you post.

  • The information shared in these forums, by moderators and members, is designed to complement, not replace, the relationship between an individual and his/her own physician.

  • All members of these forums are, by default, not considered to be licensed medical providers. If otherwise, users must clearly define themselves as such.

  • Forums members must behave at all times with respect and honesty. Posting guidelines, including time-out and banning policies, have been established by the moderators of these forums. Click here for “Am I Infected?” posting guidelines. Click here for posting guidelines pertaining to all other POZ community forums.

  • We ask all forums members to provide references for health/medical/scientific information they provide, when it is not a personal experience being discussed. Please provide hyperlinks with full URLs or full citations of published works not available via the Internet. Additionally, all forums members must post information which are true and correct to their knowledge.

  • Product advertisement—including links; banners; editorial content; and clinical trial, study or survey participation—is strictly prohibited by forums members unless permission has been secured from POZ.

To change forums navigation language settings, click here (members only), Register now

Para cambiar sus preferencias de los foros en español, haz clic aquí (sólo miembros), Regístrate ahora

Finished Reading This? You can collapse this or any other box on this page by clicking the symbol in each box.

Author Topic: Scientists unravel biggest mystery of HIV  (Read 1462 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline GoForIt

  • Member
  • Posts: 206
Scientists unravel biggest mystery of HIV
« on: November 13, 2013, 12:39:27 PM »

Scientists have finally found a way to outsmart the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or rather, its ability to hide from the antibodies and immune cells. This is the quality that makes HIV so dangerous. However, researchers were able to find a way to create an effective cure for AIDS using the substance tacrolimus and finally win over the dangerous disease.

The main difficulty against the human immunodeficiency virus (responsible for such a scary disease as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is that this malicious virus is completely elusive for human immune system. One gets the impression that it has some kind of invisibility power where antibodies cannot recognize it. A fairly strong variability of the HIV protein is to blame. This is precisely why the immune system is unable to develop antibodies that could "identify and detain" the virus exiting the cell.

However, in principle, there is another way of neutralizing HIV. The immune system can do it when the virus is still in the cell. All cells of the body have a semblance of integrated alarm activated when a pathogen enters a cell and start reproducing. Each infectious agent, be it a virus or a bacterium, penetrates the cell to bring along its own set of molecules that interact with cellular substances and activate the alarm. This signal represented by a chemical reaction rapidly comes to the immune system, attracting antibodies to the infected cell.

This is the usual way of neutralization of many viruses and bacteria that manage to get into cells, but it does not work with HIV. When penetrating a cell, this virus begins to breed, and manages to remain invisible to the alarm system. It was completely unclear how the virus manages to do it. However, the observations showed that the infected cell behaves as a healthy one, and therefore antibodies are not interested in it. How does the HIV achieve this effect? Recently, biologist Greg Towers and his colleagues at University College of London (UK) were able to figure it out. After a series of experiments, the researchers found that HIV, once in a cell, binds to three proteins, one of which is required for the maturation of mRNA, and the other two belong to the immune protein cyclophilin.

This is precisely what disables the cell signaling. In fact, mRNAs are involved in antiviral responses, preventing reading the information from the DNA of a virus. Cyclophilins provide interferon protection of a cell by triggering the synthesis of proteins from a group of interferons that, exiting the infected cell, come in contact with its neighbors, encouraging them to "produce" mRNAs and other cellular antiviral "drugs." That is, in fact, the interferon response is a major component of the cell alarm system.

The immunodeficiency virus associated with these proteins inhibits their activity. But is it possible to prevent this process? Biologists have conducted a series of experiments where they managed to do it. They removed one of the cyclophilin from the cells, replacing it with an analog cyclosporine - cyclic polypeptide consisting of 11 amino acids produced by soil fungi species Beauveria nivea. It has been long known that cyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressive agent capable of providing artificial immunosuppression, so it is often used for preventing rejection in transplantation of organs and tissues.

However, cyclosporine has another useful characteristic. They can bind to the proteins that HIV uses to become "invisible" to antibodies. The question was only in the selection of the analogue also capable of binding to these proteins, but without suppressing the immune response. After a series of trial runs, Dr. Towers and his colleagues were able to obtain a similar substance. As a result, when it was added to the infected cell, on the one hand, it blocked the attempts of HIV to bind the required proteins, and on the other hand did not suppress the activity of the proteins, so the interferon signaling worked. The cells quickly recognized the infected cell and destroyed it before the virus has had time to propagate.

Scientists believe that such material could in principle be an effective medicine against AIDS. However, scientists immediately notice that it cannot operate on its own, but only in conjunction with effective antibodies. Now they need to produce more antibodies immediately capable of identifying the proteins of the malicious virus.
08/09/2013  Diagnosed WB positive
08/20/2013  CD4-506(28%)  VL-10,800
09/12/2013  CD4-391(28%)  VL-14,900
09/17/2013  Start ART (Truvada + Tivicay)
10/11/2013  CD4-377(26%)  VL-UD
12/20/2013  CD4-590(??%)  VL-UD
03/18/2014  CD4-660(29%)  VL-UD
07/22/2014  CD4-613(29%)  VL-UD
08/01/2014   Start Phase 3 TAF (Truvada 2.0) Clinical Trial (TAF + Tivicay)
10/09/2014  CD4-498(29.5%) VL-UD
11/06/2014  CD4-600(30.2%) VL-UD
01/30/2015  CD4-529(31.3%) VL-UD
07/25/2015  CD4-742(36.5%) VL-UD
10/06/2015  CD4-765(28.9%) VL-UD
01/05/2016  CD4-907(33.1%) VL-UD
03/24/2016  CD4-770(33.5%) VL-UD
06/20/2016  CD4-850(35.4%) VL-UD

Dr. Mark Wainberg on Dolutegravir:
Video 1: https://youtu.be/wCXOgLJqJAY
Video 2: https://youtu.be/DKiaD7fHO-s
Antiretroviral Therapy in 2016: http://tinyurl.com/zk45x6e


Terms of Membership for these forums

© 2017 Smart + Strong. All Rights Reserved.   terms of use and your privacy
Smart + Strong® is a registered trademark of CDM Publishing, LLC.