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Author Topic: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?  (Read 3228 times)

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Offline Tadeys

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One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« on: April 28, 2012, 09:19:43 AM »
SCIENTISTS in Spain have made an exciting new discovery in the fight against HIV and Aids.
Researchers at in the IrsiCaixa Aids Research Institute in Barcelona have discovered the molecule that spreads the HIV virus around the body once it has entered the bloodstream.
Ganglioside-membrane molecules penetrate cells in the immune system, spreading the HIV virus to the body’s main infection-fighting centre – the lymph glands.
Dr Buenaventura Clotet, who has led the team through their three-month research, said the new drugs created as a result of this study will be more efficient.
Fascinatingly, the study’s findings could help create drugs which eradicate the virus completely as well as a possible anti-HIV vaccine – although this could take several years.

Dr Buenaventura Clotet, who has led the team through their three-month research, said the new drugs created as a result of this study will be more efficient.
Fascinatingly, the study’s findings could help create drugs which eradicate the virus completely as well as a possible anti-HIV vaccine – although this could take several years.
Dr Clotet took the opportunity to publically criticise the large cuts planned by the PP government in health and research.
“The excellence of the research in Spain has not been created in two days, but it could all be thrown away in two days,” he said.

Offline WRD_123

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #1 on: April 30, 2012, 12:37:54 AM »
I saw this too! It seems like an awesome breakthrough... but I wonder how much it really is helping though because it has not been discussed by many media outlets yet. Maybe they are waiting until this knowledge is used to develop something?

I just wish they could use this information to accomplish something within the next 1-3 years.. not 5-10 years.

Offline Rev. Moon

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #2 on: April 30, 2012, 12:38:57 AM »
"I have tried hard--but life is difficult, and I am a very useless person. I can hardly be said to have an independent existence. I was just a screw or a cog in the great machine I called life, and when I dropped out of it I found I was of no use anywhere else."

Offline georgep77

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #3 on: April 30, 2012, 02:36:18 AM »
Spain ?

probably 20 yrs      ;)
Come on Sangamo,  Geovax,  Bionor immuno, ...Make us happy !!!
+ 2008

Offline vaboi

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #4 on: April 30, 2012, 04:24:59 AM »
It seems like every month there's a new scientist or company somewhere saying they have discovered something new about the virus and that it will dramatically change things.  In all actuality most are probably just trying to get investors interested to get more money for research.  Who knows how true what they claim really is..  I guess we'll find out someday when the new or better drugs/vaccine/cure actually do come.

Offline Tadeys

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #5 on: April 30, 2012, 11:41:07 AM »
Spain????? What's wrong with Spain? It might not be TOP, but it is topnotch when it comes to HIV research. From what I have read, 2 teams discovered this protein, a Spanish and a Germain team of scientist.

Below the article published in PloS:

 HIV's Envelope Help the Virus to Spread

Caitlin Sedwick*
Freelance Science Writer, San Diego, California, United States of America

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that patrol tissues, on the lookout for microbial invaders. When DCs encounter a pathogen, they chop it up into tiny pieces and then carry samples of it to local lymph nodes. There, they display their finds to another kind of immune cell, the T cell, which then mounts a full-fledged immune response against the invader.

Unfortunately, HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, can exploit the DC surveillance network to its own advantage: HIV is picked up by DCs that patrol mucosal tissues, but avoids being killed by them, and instead hitches a ride to lymph nodes. There, the virus transfers into its favorite host cell type, the T cell. Until now, it wasn't clear how DCs recognize HIV for uptake—a mystery that's now been solved thanks to a joint effort by Spanish and German research groups. The groups, headed by Nuria Izquierdo-Useros and Javier Martinez-Picado in Spain, and Maier Lorizate and Hans-Georg Kräusslich in Germany, uncover the culprit in this month's issue of PLoS Biology.

It's no mystery how DCs detect many pathogens: the microbes betray themselves by displaying certain pathogen-specific compounds on their surfaces, which DCs recognize using dedicated receptors. HIV also displays a few viral proteins on its surface (it hides the rest away under a lipid bilayer envelope that it acquires from the plasma membrane of infected cells). However, previous studies indicated that viral proteins displayed on the surface may not be essential for DC capture. Instead, prior work from Martinez-Picado's group led the authors to theorize that host cell glycosphingolipids incorporated into the virus envelope could be critical in triggering DC recognition.

There are many types of glycosphingolipids, and one kind had previously been observed in the membranes of several retroviruses, including HIV. This lipid, GM3, is from a subclass of glycosphingolipids called gangliosides. To follow up on these findings, Izquierdo-Useros, Lorizate, and colleagues first examined whether other gangliosides might also be present in HIV's envelope. Indeed, they found several other gangliosides there—an observation that prompted the researchers to examine what role gangliosides might play in HIV recognition and capture by DCs.

To determine whether gangliosides are needed for HIV uptake by DCs, the authors examined DC uptake of artificial virus-like particles (VLPs), which carry a lipid envelope and the inner structural proteins, but lack HIV surface glycoproteins and viral genetic material. They found that VLPs containing gangliosides were able to get into DCs, but those lacking gangliosides could not do so. Next, the researchers tested which gangliosides can promote DC uptake by using artificial lipid globules called liposomes, each containing a different ganglioside. Similar to VLPs, DCs easily took up liposomes containing gangliosides, but were unable to take up liposomes devoid of all gangliosides. Both liposomes and VLPs, the authors showed, use the same method to enter DCs—a method that depends not on viral proteins but on the presence of gangliosides in the viral envelope.

These data suggest that there is some special feature of gangliosides that promotes their specific recognition by DCs. While much of a ganglioside is buried in the lipid bilayer, a portion of it, called the head group, is exposed at the membrane surface. Ganglioside head groups contain one or more copies of sialic acid, a sugar, with different ganglioside types each sporting distinct arrangements of their sialic acids. The authors' investigation revealed that it's these head groups—particularly sialic acids attached to a lactose group—that promote DC recognition. But, while DC uptake requires sialic acid molecules, gangliosides whose head groups are too complex can't be recognized by DCs.

These findings all point to the idea that gangliosides are essential for HIV uptake by DCs. In fact, the authors showed that addition of free GM3 head groups to cell cultures prevented DCs from picking up intact HIV. They also demonstrated that DCs exposed to ganglioside-depleted HIV can't pick up the virus and so can't efficiently transfer it to T cells. Therefore, gangliosides may also affect HIV's ability to establish infection in the body. Of course, further studies are needed to understand how DCs recognize gangliosides in the viral envelope, how HIV avoids destruction after ganglioside-mediated DC uptake, and how the virus later escapes to infect T cells. Nonetheless, gangliosides may represent a useful therapeutic target for preventing or limiting infection by HIV and other ganglioside-containing viruses.

Izquierdo-Useros N, Lorizate M, Contreras F-X, Rodriguez-Plata MT, Glass B, et al. (2012) Sialyllactose in Viral Membrane Gangliosides Is a Novel Molecular Recognition Pattern for Mature Dendritic Cell Capture of HIV-1. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001315
« Last Edit: April 30, 2012, 11:44:03 AM by Tadeys »

Offline lusopt

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Re: One step closer to an HIV vaccine?
« Reply #6 on: May 02, 2012, 04:48:20 PM »
I just dont understand why it must take several years to acomplish a new promising discovery. Since I was diagnosed i have read lots of fantastic things, they found out how HIV hides, they learn how they can push him out of the infected cell, enzyms this enzyms that, even one person was cured of HIV in San Francisco, we learned all this at one moment and once you notice, you dont hear of those promising studys again, its like everything has vanished, feels like its all just talk.

Fu#%! tyred of this stupid disease, since i have it I never been able to have a normal life again, or a bactery here, or a bactery there, inflamation this and that, lets see when they are going to tell me I have cancer.

This Spanish discovery will vanish like others.
15/11/06: HIV-
28/10/08: HIV +
- No Meds -
18/11/08: CD4 -650 (.......)  / -17.500 VL
01/03/09: CD4- 540 (19,6%) / - 2090 VL
17/07/09: CD4 -603 (20,1%) / - 5040 VL
27/10/09: CD4 -627 (21,5%) / - 10.896 VL
25/03/10: CD4 -609 (23,9%) / -11.602 VL
12/09/10: CD4 -555 (........) / - 55.500 VL
21/04/11: CD4 -466 (17%)   / - 50.339 VL
01/10/11: CD4 -375 (19%)   / - 73.058 VL

Started, Epzicom and Sustiva
01/02/12: CD4 -298 (23%)   / - undetectable


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