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Author Topic: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies  (Read 5185 times)

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Offline Inchlingblue

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Carlos3000 posted two very interesting articles in the thread entitled "Could This Be The Holy Grail?" They should have a thread of their own, so I started this one. The links to his articles are below. Here is a third article I found on the same topic. Each of the three links supplies some new and different information.

Antibody find lifts HIV vaccine hopes
 
Leigh Dayton, Science writer | September 04, 2009

Article from:  The Australian

HIV researchers have made the biggest breakthrough in 15 years, identifying two powerful antibodies that appear to fight all types of the virus - a development that brings new hope of a vaccine.

Using powerful screening technology, a US team has discovered two infection-fighting proteins in blood taken from an African who was already infected with HIV but did not show any of the symptoms.

The scientists found these antibodies apparently neutralised all major groups, or clades, of HIV.

By determining where the antibodies bind to the virus, they know which parts of the virus to target with vaccines. They also identified what genes the donor's body used to build the "broadly neutralising antibodies".

The knowledge could lead to gene therapies to treat people already infected with HIV, as well as vaccines to protect people from infection.

Worldwide, 33 million people are infected with HIV, including about 16,600 Australians. The virus is estimated to kill about 2 million people a year, having already claimed 25 million.

Antibodies are found in the blood and other body fluids and are produced when a person's immune system detects harmful substances such as live viruses or bacteria.

The newly found antibodies, PG9 and PG16, target regions of the virus that remain constant, even as the virus mutates.

The findings were reported overnight in the journal Science by an international consortium led by immunologist Dennis Burton of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, and the newly established Ragon Institute in Boston, Massachusetts.

"We're very, very excited to see this paper," said virologist Damian Purcell, head of Melbourne University's Molecular Virology Laboratory.

"It's a really important finding for vaccine developers."

New-York based Wayne Koff, senior vice-president of research and development with the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, said the findings represented "an exciting advance toward the goal of an effective AIDS vaccine because now we've got a new, potentially better target on HIV to focus our efforts for vaccine design".

"And having identified this one, we're set up to find more, which should accelerate global efforts in AIDS vaccine development," he added.

Trial vaccines developed over the past 15 years have proved ineffective or even dangerous.

In November 2007, a global vaccine trial involving 3000 people at high risk of HIV infection, including 19 Australians, was halted when scientists discovered that the vaccine appeared to make them more susceptible to HIV infection. The reason remains unclear.

Associate Professor Purcell cautioned that the research was in its early days but he predicted that, with the new results in hand, scientists would solve key technical problems within five years and have vaccines and therapies on the market in another 10 years, at the latest.

"This finding demonstrates that, after all the disappointments over the last 15 years, scientists have gone back to basics and we're looking at fundamental questions like what are the best targets in the virus," Professor Purcell said.

He hopes to use the newfound antibodies to test candidate vaccines that appear to work in animals.

According to Professor Purcell, teams like his were frustrated that approaches that had worked with other viruses were not working with HIV.

Part of the problem was that HIV mutated rapidly in the community and even in an infected person's body. Further, numerous clades circulated in different regions of the world.

As well, because no one is known to have completely eliminated an HIV infection, it's not known which elements of the body's immune response must be triggered to get rid of, or clear, the virus.

Until now, researchers had been unable to find an Achilles heel on the virus that remained the same across clades.

Professor Burton's group discovered that the special antibodies, PG9 and PG16, targeted regions of the virus that didn't change, despite viral mutations.

Teams worldwide can now use the finding to devise immunogens -- the active ingredients of vaccines -- that stimulate a person's immune system to create similar highly protective antibodies.

Professor Burton's group began by collecting blood samples from 1800 HIV-infected people who had remained symptom-free for years. These "elite controllers" are able to suppress the virus without the use of drugs.

According to Professor Purcell, elite controllers achieve that in a variety of ways: from blocking the ability of the virus to infect other cells to eliciting other types of immune responses. Rough estimates are that one in 300 infected people are elite controllers.

Blood samples used in the study came from seven African nations, as well as Thailand, Britain, the US and Australia.

The Australian samples were supplied by Melbourne's National Reference Laboratory.

Applying a series of sensitive screening procedures and specially designed technology, Professor Burton's team identified which antibodies were most effective. From the top 10per cent, they identified the PG9 and PG16 antibodies, then isolated the gene coding for them, enabling production of colonies of the antibodies.

These will be available to laboratories worldwide.

Professor Burton said: "So now we may have a better chance of designing a vaccine that will elicit such broadly neutralising antibodies, which we think are key to successful vaccine development."


LINKS:

http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,26024602-601,00.html


http://www.positivelypositive.ca/hiv-aids-news/IAVI-Two_New_Antibodies_Found_to_Cripple_HIV.html

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17733-discovery-of-hivs-weak-spot-boosts-vaccine-quest.html
« Last Edit: September 04, 2009, 02:00:46 PM by Inchlingblue »

Offline emeraldize

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Re: Discovery of HIV's Weak Spot Boosts Vaccine Quest
« Reply #1 on: September 04, 2009, 12:54:36 PM »
This is quite interesting.
« Last Edit: September 05, 2009, 12:58:51 AM by emeraldize »

Offline Inchlingblue

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Re: Discovery of HIV's Weak Spot Boosts Vaccine Quest
« Reply #2 on: September 04, 2009, 01:37:44 PM »
The program to find these bNAbs is called Protocol G and even though the pool of individuals was rather large at 1,800, these two antibodies came from just one of them, an African man. Most of the participants/samples for Protocol G were from developing countries.

Part of the importance of this new research is that, with the input of Monogram and Threraclone, they were able to use a new technology in finding these antibodies. It is very likely that using this new approach will result in other potent broadly neutralizing antibodies found (the more the merrier) in the near future.

The methods by which PG9 and PG16 were isolated are themselves proving instructive. Their identification represents the first success of an ongoing global hunt launched by IAVI in 2006 to find new bNAbs to support the rational design of novel AIDS vaccine candidates. The effort, named Protocol G, is unprecedented in scale and distinguished by its emphasis on identifying antibodies that neutralize subtypes of HIV circulating primarily in developing countries. IAVIís clinical research partners have collected blood specimens from upward of 1,800 HIV-infected volunteers from IAVI-supported clinical research centers in seven sub-Saharan countries as well as from centers in Thailand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.

LINK:

http://www.iavi.org/news-center/Pages/PressRelease.aspx?pubID=3157

Offline xman

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #3 on: September 04, 2009, 02:09:33 PM »
Associate Professor Purcell cautioned that the research was in its early days but he predicted that, with the new results in hand, scientists would solve key technical problems within five years and have vaccines and therapies on the market in another 10 years, at the latest.

So we need to wait until 2025?
sign the petition launched by the aids policy project addressed to the nih aimed to increase the money needed to find the cure:

http://www.aidspolicyproject.org/petition_for_the_nih

we can make a difference and we need to fight. please support them! it doesn't cost you anything. they need it now more than ever!

Offline Inchlingblue

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #4 on: September 04, 2009, 02:17:05 PM »
So we need to wait until 2025?

Assuming you want to take him as some sort of oracle,  I read it as anywhere from 10 years to 16 years from now.

Offline GNYC09

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #5 on: September 04, 2009, 02:22:28 PM »
This is wonderful news  ;D

Offline xman

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #6 on: September 04, 2009, 02:24:15 PM »
Assuming you want to take him as some sort of oracle,  I read it as anywhere from 10 years to 16 years from now.

wow fantastic. will keep fresh my don perignon.

let's hope something else will come out earlier.  ::)
« Last Edit: September 04, 2009, 02:28:45 PM by xman »
sign the petition launched by the aids policy project addressed to the nih aimed to increase the money needed to find the cure:

http://www.aidspolicyproject.org/petition_for_the_nih

we can make a difference and we need to fight. please support them! it doesn't cost you anything. they need it now more than ever!

Offline Inchlingblue

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #7 on: September 04, 2009, 02:37:13 PM »
let's hope something else will come out earlier.  ::)

There are improvements in treatment all the time and there is ongoing and very promising research with gene therapy. The thing about these bNAbs is that it is already shown that they are able to stop HIV in its tracks in humans, since they were taken from human subjects who are controlling HIV. That's pretty major.

It's now a matter of isolating more of them, which should not be that difficult, and then of finding a way to get the immune system to make them by way of immunogens or to genetically engineer them in the body (see thread "Scientists now trying to outflank HIV/AIDS virus").

If you read all the different articles about this you'll see that it explains how these bNAbs are very potent, much more so than the previous bNAbs that had been isolated.

Offline marius68

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #8 on: November 20, 2009, 07:42:49 AM »
New antibodies have been discovered. Another step closer to a vaccine:

http://www.news-medical.net/news/20091120/Discoveries-on-anti-HIV-antibodies-may-help-researchers-create-an-effective-HIV-vaccine.aspx

http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2009/HIVAntibodiesStrategy.htm

Discoveries on anti-HIV antibodies may help researchers create an effective HIV vaccine

WHAT: New discoveries about anti-HIV antibodies may bring researchers a step closer to creating an effective HIV vaccine, according to a new paper co-authored by scientists at the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

Scientists know that an HIV-neutralizing antibody called b12 binds to gp120, an HIV surface protein, at one of the few areas of the virus that does not mutate: the site where gp120 initially attaches to human immune cells (http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2007/b12antibody.htm). It was thought that exposing the human immune system to this site on gp120 would generate antibodies that, like b12, can neutralize HIV. Studies have found that for unknown reasons, however, the vast majority of antibodies that recognize this site do not block the virus from infecting cells. Now a new study solves this puzzle, suggesting that antibodies must home in precisely on the site of initial gp120 attachment to successfully neutralize HIV.

The gp120 protein usually appears on the surface of HIV and on infected cells in inactive forms of viral debris or non-functional viral spikes. Only rarely do gp120 molecules appear on the surface of the virus in a functional viral spike, which contains a cluster of three gp120 molecules, known as a trimer, in specific alignment. HIV uses this functional viral spike to bind to immune cells and infect them.

The new study shows that most antibodies able to bind to non-functional forms of gp120 cannot bind to gp120 in the functional viral spike and therefore cannot neutralize HIV. Further, the study demonstrates that the reason most anti-gp120 antibodies similar to b12 cannot bind to the functional viral spike is because of the way these antibodies attach to gp120. A close examination of two such antibodies illustrated that their binding positions on gp120 cause a key portion of the protein either to swing in or flare out in positions incompatible with the trimer structure. In contrast, the position of b12 antibody binding allows gp120 to neatly form its normal trimeric structure.

The scientists conclude that generating HIV neutralizing antibodies will require teaching the immune system to make antibodies that precisely target the site of vulnerability on gp120 as it appears in the functional viral spike rather than targeting the plentiful forms of viral debris such as single gp120 molecules.

Offline marius68

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Offline Inchlingblue

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #10 on: November 20, 2009, 09:51:33 AM »
New antibodies have been discovered. Another step closer to a vaccine:

This is not about the discovery of new antibodies but rather about the discovery of how, precisely, an antibody known as b12 binds to gp120 on the surface of HIV (and how antibodies similar to b12 are not able to bind to it).

It's a sign of very good progress being made so it's definitely excellent news.

Offline marius68

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #11 on: November 20, 2009, 01:57:24 PM »

Thanks for the correction.

I only wish  research was more coordinated. For example, why not combine the work on effective antibodies with the ingenious approach of Dr. Johnson for antibody delivery? After all the research is being paid by the same ( the taxpayers)!! Many great ideas are being put in practice and we only need some coordination to tight the different bits.

http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=27194

http://stokes.chop.edu/publications/press/?ID=467

Offline Inchlingblue

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #12 on: November 20, 2009, 03:13:14 PM »
I think the research that Dr. Johnson is doing which essentially bypasses the immune system altogether is one of the most exciting and promising, especially from a therapeutic angle. Imagine an endless supply of antibodies without the immune system having to produce them, truly amazing. It would be awesome if it pans out.

Offline georgep77

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #13 on: November 20, 2009, 05:43:57 PM »
Awesome !!!        :D

  Can't wait to see the end of this nightmare some day
Come on Sangamo,  Geovax,  Bionor immuno, ...Make us happy !!!
+ 2008

Offline sensual1973

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #14 on: November 21, 2009, 04:14:12 AM »
Awesome !!!        :D

  Can't wait to see the end of this nightmare some day

and i cant wait for next weeks new topic  !!
« Last Edit: November 21, 2009, 04:16:47 AM by sensual1973 »
God grant me the serenity to accept the things i can not change.

Offline georgep77

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #15 on: November 21, 2009, 09:30:02 AM »
and i cant wait for next weeks new topic  !!
:-\
Come on Sangamo,  Geovax,  Bionor immuno, ...Make us happy !!!
+ 2008

Offline J220

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #16 on: November 22, 2009, 01:58:02 PM »
and i cant wait for next weeks new topic  !!

If you are so skeptical of the efforts at research, why do you keep reading and posting here? Or is your intent just to harass and ridicule others?
"Hope is my philosophy
Just needs days in which to be
Love of Life means hope for me
Born on a New Day" - John David

Offline anniebc

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #17 on: November 22, 2009, 02:58:43 PM »

Quote
and i cant wait for next weeks new topic  !!
While you are waiting I hear the Grinch is looking for an assistance... ;)

If you are so skeptical of the efforts at research, why do you keep reading and posting here? Or is your intent just to harass and ridicule others?

Some people are just born pessimists...personally I think it's sad they feel they have nothing to look forward to, I wouldn't worry too much about it..as long as the rest of us remain positive (no pun intended) I think we will eventually get through this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Never knock on deaths door..ring the bell and run..he really hates that.

Offline GNYC09

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #18 on: November 22, 2009, 04:52:14 PM »
If you are so skeptical of the efforts at research, why do you keep reading and posting here? Or is your intent just to harass and ridicule others?
Have you heard the story of the Scorpion and the Frog (http://allaboutfrogs.org/stories/scorpion.html)?  It seems it is in his nature due to his struggle with severe depression (http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=29026.msg357179#msg357179). Maybe worth cutting him some slack?  Or maybe not?

Offline J220

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Re: Breakthrough Research Finds Potent Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
« Reply #19 on: November 22, 2009, 05:34:48 PM »
Have you heard the story of the Scorpion and the Frog (http://allaboutfrogs.org/stories/scorpion.html)?  It seems it is in his nature due to his struggle with severe depression (http://forums.poz.com/index.php?topic=29026.msg357179#msg357179). Maybe worth cutting him some slack?  Or maybe not?

True, we've all been there in the days/ months after diagnosis. But my point is that contributions in this section of Research News, should be rather narrow and specific to the topic.

I feel that his posts are pretty universal in casting doubt on practically all the postings about the news shared here, so perhaps he is not posting in the right forum. I would kindly suggest the "Living With", where he can debate about the possibility (or impossibility, as may suit) of ever finding a cure.

Now, if he has legitimate contributions, questions, arguments, inquiries, that are technical in nature and germane to what are discussing here, then that's another matter.

But to chime in time after time to essentially call any news "BS" and ridicule others for posting links to news then that is not serving any purpose, and its certainly not adding any intelligent conrtibution to the topics. For that kind of debates there are other forum topics. Cheers, all.
« Last Edit: November 22, 2009, 10:00:06 PM by J220 »
"Hope is my philosophy
Just needs days in which to be
Love of Life means hope for me
Born on a New Day" - John David

Offline Inchlingblue

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Scientists determine structure of immune molecule that counteracts HIV strains

June 1, 2010
 
In findings that contribute to efforts to design an AIDS vaccine, a team led by Scripps Research Institute scientists has determined the structure of an immune system antibody molecule that effectively acts against most strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS.

The study, which is being published in an advance, online issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) during the week of June 1, 2010, illuminates an unusual human antibody called PG16.

"This study advances the overall goal of how to design an HIV vaccine," said Scripps Research Professor Ian Wilson, who led the team with Dennis Burton, Scripps Research professor and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center at Scripps Research. "This antibody is highly effective in neutralizing HIV-1 and has evolved novel features to combat the virus."


Continued . . .

LINK:

http://www.physorg.com/news194632277.html


 


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