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Author Topic: IDX-899 and Polygonum  (Read 1312 times)

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Offline John2038

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IDX-899 and Polygonum
« on: January 31, 2010, 12:09:48 PM »
IDX-899, an aryl phosphinate-indole non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the potential treatment of HIV infection

Antiretroviral drug resistance is one of the complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are being developed for use in patients infected with HIV-1 because of the enhanced activity of these inhibitors against viruses that are resistant to the first-generation NNRTIs. IDX-899 (GSK-2248761), under development by Idenix Pharmaceuticals Inc and ViiV Healthcare, is an aryl phosphinate-indole second-generation NNRTI that potently and selectively inhibits wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 in vitro. Preclinical data for IDX-899 suggest a significantly greater barrier to resistance compared with that of the first-generation NNRTI efavirenz. Two pathways of resistance have been identified for IDX-899 in vitro that include Glu138Lys and Val90Ile/Tyr181Cys mutations. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that IDX-899 exhibits linear, dose-proportional and food-dependent pharmacokinetics; Cmin concentrations achieved with this drug allow once-daily dosing. In phase I clinical trials, IDX-899 reduced HIV-1 RNA and increased CD4+ cell counts in treatment-nave patients infected with HIV-1. At the time of publication, a phase II clinical trial of IDX-899 was being conducted.

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Anti-HIV Activities of the Compounds Isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Polygonum multiflorum

The 70 % EtOH extract of POLYGONUM CUSPIDATUM showed inhibitory action against HIV-1-induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations IN VITRO with a 50 % effective concentration (EC (50)) of 13.94 +/- 3.41 microg/mL. Through bioactivity-guided fractionation, 20 phenolic compounds, including eight stilbenoids, were isolated from the roots of POLYGONUM CUSPIDATUM, and their anti-HIV-1 activities were evaluated. Results showed that compounds 1, 13, 14, and 16 demonstrated fairly strong antiviral activity against HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with EC (50) values of 4.37 +/- 1.96 microg/mL, 19.97 +/- 5.09, 14.4 +/- 1.34 microg/mL, and 11.29 +/- 6.26 microg/mL and therapeutic index (TI) values of 8.12, > 10.02, > 13.89, and > 17.71, respectively. Other compounds showed either weak or no effects. Compound 6 also showed weak inhibition (153.42 +/- 19.25 microg/mL); however, it possesses very good water solubility and showed almost no cytotoxicity (> 2000 microg/mL), therefore achieving a fairly good TI (13.04). The activities of the two compounds ( 3 and 18) from POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM were also assayed. The relationship between molecular structures and their bioactivities was also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

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