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Author Topic: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...  (Read 11534 times)

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Offline Customer

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Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« on: September 08, 2007, 06:22:20 AM »


SELENIUM

Selenium Treatment Beneficial in HIV, January 23, 2007, By Tim Horn, Senior Writer & Editor

(AIDSmeds.com) - A new research paper suggests that selenium supplementation is associated with significant health benefits in HIV-positive people, including stabilized viral loads and moderate CD4 count gains.  The nine-month placebo-controlled study, conducted by investigators at the University of Miami, was reported in the January 22 issue of the American Medical Association's Archives of Internal Medicine.

With a grant from the National Institutes of Health, a team of investigators at the University of Miami conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating once-daily supplementation with Selenomax® (selenium-enriched yeast).
After nine months of treatment, selenium responders did not experience significant increases in viral load, compared to an average 0.29 log viral load increase among the selenium nonresponders. Increases in viral load were also documented in the placebo group.

http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/1667_11158.shtml


GREEN TEA

Green Tea for HIV?, by Tim Horn (AIDSmeds.com)

A component of green tea blocks the ability of HIV to enter CD4 cells, according to the results of test tube studies reported by researchers at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.

http://www.poz.com/articles/761_11621.shtml

Other multi-target inhibitors have also been described.
For example, Tannin, a polyphenolic compound extracted
from a Chinese medical herb, inhibits HIV-1 entry into cells
by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus
blocking HIV-1 fusion [200]. Interestingly, Tannin inhibits
also HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [236], protease [237], and
integrase [238] activities.

http://www.bentham.org/cdtid/samples/cdtid5-1/0002S.pdf


NICOTINAMIDE

Increased plasma tryptophan in HIV-infected patients treated with pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide.

Murray MF, Langan M, MacGregor RR. Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Decreased plasma tryptophan in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first reported over a decade ago, and this observation has since been confirmed by many groups. Before this study, only zidovudine (an antiviral medication) had been reported to reverse plasma tryptophan depletion in HIV-infected persons. Starting with the hypothesis that HIV induces a pellagra-like state and that plasma tryptophan in HIV-infected patients is decreased as a known biochemical correlate of pellagra, we predicted that niacin therapy would reverse plasma tryptophan depletion as it does in pellagra. METHODS: After receiving approval from the institutional review board, we treated HIV-infected patients for 2 mo with high-dose niacin in the form of oral nicotinamide. RESULTS: There was an average 40% increase in plasma tryptophan (P = 0.01) in the four HIV-infected individuals who completed the 2-mo protocol. This finding was specific in that four other amino acids, which have been shown to have significant plasma concentration alterations during HIV infection (i.e., cystine, methionine, taurine, and lysine), showed no significant change with nicotinamide therapy. CONCLUSIONS: There were no adverse side effects attributable to this treatment. The effects of high-dose nicotinamide treatment on morbidity or mortality in HIV-infected persons are yet to be determined. This report marks the first successful use of a vitamin to reverse this HIV-induced metabolic abnormality.


Nicotinamide inhibits HIV-1 in both acute and chronic in vitro infection. Murray MF, Srinivasan A. Department of Medicine, Univ. of PA School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA. PMID: 7763268 [PubMed]

HIV-1 infected patients can manifest a number of poorly understood conditions including dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. These conditions are in some ways suggestive of pellagra, the syndrome associated with niacin depletion. We demonstrate here that nicotinamide, the amide form of niacin, inhibits HIV-1 infection in cell culture. Neither nicotinic acid which is the alternative form of niacin, nor thiamine (another B complex vitamin), shows a similar degree of inhibition in tissue culture. This inhibition occurs in both primary cells and in established cell lines. In vitro models of acute and chronic HIV infection are demonstrated here to be inhibited by nicotinamide in a dose dependent manner when added in millimolar concentrations.

Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide of niacin (vitamin B3) which has the chemical formula C6H6N2O.


Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #1 on: September 08, 2007, 07:16:54 AM »
OLIVE LEAF EXTRACT

Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract and synergism with HAART.
Lee-Huang S, Huang P, Huang P.  Int Conf AIDS. 2004 Jul 11-16; 15: abstract no. WePeA5651.
New York University School of Medicine, New York, United States


Background: Many AIDS patients use olive leaf extract (OLE) to strengthen the immune system, relieve chronic fatigue, treat KS and HSV, and reduce the side effects of HAART. However, little is known about the anti-HIV activity of OLE and whether it interacts with HAART drugs. ...  Conclusion: This is the first characterization of the anti-HIV activity of OLE. Our results demonstrate synergism between OLE and HAART.

http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102283585.html


Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1infection and OLE treatment.

Sylvia Lee-Huang,a,*,1 Li Zhang,a Philip Lin Huang,b,1 Young-Tae Chang,c
and Paul L. Huangd,1

We investigated the antiviral activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) preparations standardized by liquid chromatography-coupled
mass spectrometry (LC-MS) against HIV-1 infection and replication. We find that OLE inhibits acute infection and cell-to-cell
transmission of HIV-1 as assayed by syncytia formation using uninfected MT2 cells co-cultured with HIV-1-infected H9 T lymphocytes.
OLE also inhibits HIV-1 replication as assayed by p24 expression in infected H9 cells.

These results represent the first characterization of the anti-HIV activity of OLE using well-established
bioassays. The microarray results are the first systematic identification of cellular targets associated with HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment.

http://www.nyu.edu/classes/ytchang/reprint/2003%20Sylvia.pdf


Offline Matty the Damned

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #2 on: September 08, 2007, 07:05:26 PM »
Customer,

Your selective editing of this abstract left out the most pertinent section:

Many AIDS patients use olive leaf extract (OLE) to strengthen the immune system, relieve chronic fatigue, treat KS and HSV, and reduce the side effects of HAART. However, little is known about the anti-HIV activity of OLE and whether it interacts with HAART drugs. This imperils patients who use OLE along with prescription HIV drugs.

MtD

/emphasis added by Matty the Damned/

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #3 on: September 09, 2007, 03:57:45 AM »
I sort of made the assumption that if OLE has positive effect together with HAART, i would have positive effect without HAART... Some advocates of OLE certainly make such claims. I do not think this single study made by three persons all named "Huang" (relatives?) is a solid evidence for anything.

Generally, i don't have a strong confidence in these herb-medications.  My vitamis contain selenium and nicotinamide, i drink green tea and OLE i intend to add to my menu. I do not exclude the possibility of gaining weak benefit from herbal-approach, just that i do not know if there is any proven cases of benefit. Selenium looks like a good candidate atleast. I do not want to create false hopes.  There are hundreds of healers and herb-salesmen preying upon desperate sick people. Some of them might have true caring intentions, and therefore we must greet them with respect.

This outdated guide gives an overview of the herbs which have been suggested
http://www.catie.ca/herb_e.nsf
« Last Edit: September 09, 2007, 04:16:48 AM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #4 on: September 09, 2007, 04:57:39 AM »

The reference to "3 huangs" was not made in disrespect to the chinese. I am a taoist/buddhist myself! I made some background checks, and if these are the correct persons, then it looks like serious research.

Lee-Huang, Ph.D., Professor of Biochemistry at NYU
Young-Tae Chang,  Associate Professor NYU, Department of Chemistry
Philip L. Huang and Paul L. Huang, currently at Harvard Medical School

More fresh studies in the sublect: http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auid:7636465

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #5 on: September 09, 2007, 08:41:43 AM »

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selenium

In humans, selenium is a trace element nutrient which functions as cofactor for reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase. It also plays a role in the functioning of the thyroid gland by participating as a cofactor for thyroid hormone deiodinases [4]. Dietary selenium comes from nuts, cereals, meat, fish, and eggs. Brazil nuts are the richest ordinary dietary source (though this is soil-dependent, since the Brazil nut does not require high levels of the element for its own needs). High levels are found in meats found in kidney, crab and lobster, in that order.[2][3] In the USA, the recommended dietary allowance for adults is 55 micrograms per day.

Selenium is used widely in vitamin preparations and other dietary supplements, in small doses (typically 50 to 200 micrograms per day for adult humans).  Although selenium is an essential trace element it is toxic if taken in excess. Exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of 400 micrograms per day can lead to selenosis.[4] Symptoms of selenosis include a garlic odour on the breath, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, sloughing of nails, fatigue, irritability and neurological damage



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil_Nut

The Brazil Nut is a South American tree Bertholletia excelsa in the family Lecythidaceae.The cream nut is one of several historical names for the Brazil nut used in America. Nutritionally, Brazil nuts are rich in selenium, although the amount of selenium varies greatly.[2] They are also a good source of magnesium and thiamine.

Some research has suggested that selenium intake is correlated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.[3] This has led some commentators to recommend the consumption of brazil nuts as a protective measure.[4]. Subsequent studies have shown that the effects of selenium on prostate cancer are inconclusive.[5]

In 1996, continuing research showed a positive correlation between selenium supplementation and cancer prevention in humans, but widespread direct application of this important finding would not add significantly to demand owing to the small doses required.

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #6 on: September 10, 2007, 04:30:05 PM »

COCONUT OIL (MONOLAURIN)

A Philippines research study shows that coconut oil can delay as well as reduce HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) which spreads AIDS.

The study, carried out by the government's San Lazaro Hospital and pharmaceutical giant United Laboratories since 1989, discovered that coconut chemical lauric acid inhibits, delays and reduces the spread of HIV virus. Lauric acid is the basis of monolaurin and sodium lauryl sulfate which were found as the active chemicals promising in controlling HIV.

The results of the tests on the 15 patients are promising, PCRDF technical supervisor Romulo Conde said, but cautioned that "more concrete conclusions need to be drawn to satisfy the world scientific community. It's difficult to bring out half baked conclusions", he said, adding that "tests will continue until next year before total conclusive results are eventually brought out, especially that thousands await possible and cheap AIDS cure".

Dr. Conrado Dayrit, president of the National Academy of Science an Technology said HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, has a fatty envelope, and monolaurin can penetrate and dismember this envelope by softening it first. "When that happens, the virus will die", Dayrit said.

The Philippine breakthrough comes just after a group of Canadian scientists was able to develop what it called "invisible condom", a microbial gel that can prevent HIV. The gel contains sodium lauryl sulfate, a chemical derived from lauric acid and mother's milk, which is a known microbe killer. Sodium lauryl sulfate, a soapy substance, dissolves viral membranes and pops them open.

The first clinical trial ever of monolaurin was on 15 HIV-infected patients reporting regularly at the San Lazaro Hospital, Manila who, never having received any anti-HIV medication, were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups:
7.2 g monolaurin,
2.4 g monolaurin and
50 ml of coconut oil
daily for 6 months.

The amount of coconut oil consumed (50 ml or 3 1/2 tablespoonfuls) or half of a coconut, would contain 20-25 grams of lauric acid, which indicates that the oil is metabolized in the body to release lauric acid and/or monolaurin.

By the 3rd month, 7 of the patients (50%) showed reduced viral load and by the 6th month 8 patients (2 receiving 7.2g monolaurin, 4 receiving 2.4 g monolaurin and 3 receiving coconut oil) had a lowered viral count.

Three patients developed AIDS on 3rd month of therapy when their CD4 count dropped below 200. One of these three, who was in the coconut oil group died 2 weeks after the study. The two other AIDS patients were in the 2.4 g monolaurin group.

With the dual discoveries of coconut oil's importance, the country stands to benefit in the future. The Philippines supply two thirds of the global demand for coconut oil which is 45 to 50 percent lauric acid.

Details of the study:
http://doh.gov.ph/sars/coconut_oil.htm

Refs.
* Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Thormar H, Issacs CE, et al. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31:27-31;
* Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Witcher KJ, Novick RP, et al.
 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1996 Jan;3(1):10-13.

« Last Edit: September 10, 2007, 04:55:14 PM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #7 on: September 13, 2007, 03:23:00 PM »

Drinking green tea, may not help at all.... ??? :-\

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3257237.stm

The scientists said further research is needed to see if EGCG could be used in new anti-HIV drugs.

They said simply drinking green tea would not offer people protection from the virus.

The concentration of EGCG used in the laboratory tests are many times over the blood concentration that could be achieved by just drinking green tea.

http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/1667_11813.shtml

The compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an antioxidant derived from green tea, inhibits neurotoxicity in a mouse model of HIV-associated dementia, Dr. Brian Giunta reported this week at a session of Experimental Biology 2007 in Washington, DC.
However, the concentration of EGCG in tea is not large enough to exert any therapeutic benefit in the presence of HIV infection, Dr. Giunta told Reuters Health, "and oral administration is unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier."


Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #8 on: September 13, 2007, 04:08:20 PM »
ZINK

Zinc may speed up disease progression (lot of uncertainty)??


http://www.aegis.com/pubs/gmhc/1997/GM110904.html

Zinc
Zinc is a mineral that is necessary for protein and energy metabolism, as well as DNA and RNA synthesis. Zinc appears to be essential for T-cell differentiation and maturation as well as lymphocyte activation.40 A few studies have reported lower levels of zinc in individuals with HIV or AIDS. The University of Miami group found a higher percentage of HIV-positive homosexual men to have low plasma zinc levels in contrast to HIV-negative homosexual men.41 The investigators also observed that normalization of plasma zinc levels was linked to slower disease progression in both AZT-treated and untreated individuals.

A number of studies using small patient populations have demonstrated modest improvements in lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8 ratios, body weight and quality of life.42 But the only data from a large pool of study subjects, reported on 281 men from the MACS cohort,43 suggest that high zinc actually speeds up disease progression. Higher consumption of zinc from food and supplements was associated with poorer survival, despite the fact that approximately 50% of the subjects had zinc intake levels significantly less than the RDA. Study participants who were taking zinc supplements at baseline had a 50% greater chance of dying during the eight-year observation period.

http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/135/4/938


Studies of Vitamins and Minerals and HIV Transmission and Disease Progression

Wafaie Fawzi*,,3, Gernard Msamanga, Donna Spiegelman,** and David J. Hunter*,  Departments of * Nutrition,  Epidemiology, and ** Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, and  Department of Community Health, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Observational studies that examined the relations between zinc status and HIV-related outcomes provided conflicting results. Higher levels of zinc intake were associated with significantly faster disease progression and higher mortality among men in a prospective cohort study of asymptomatic HIV-infected men in the United States (10,11). In another U.S. study of HIV-infected men, however, plasma levels of zinc were inversely associated with mortality (38).

http://www.aidsmap.com/en/docs/95651007-A506-448B-B758-7DB10FF59BCC.asp

Zinc may be problematic, since HIV uses zinc as a component of its nucleocapsid protein. One study found doses well above 11.6 mg a day were associated with higher mortality in HIV-positive individuals20. Another study found zinc supplementation boosts lymphocyte counts . A sensible limit is 15mg a day.


What foods provide zinc?
Zinc is found in a wide variety of foods (2). Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain seafood, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products (2,9). Zinc absorption is greater from a diet high in animal protein than a diet rich in plant proteins (2). Phytates, which are found in whole grain breads, cereals, legumes and other products, can decrease zinc absorption (2, 10, 11).

« Last Edit: September 14, 2007, 01:30:19 AM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #9 on: September 16, 2007, 03:06:44 PM »
N-Acetylcysteine

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-113807014.html
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a major antioxidant involved in liver detoxification and it is the precursor for glutathione. NAC is used to rescue patients from acetaminophen (Tylenol) liver damage and damage from other toxic chemicals. NAC is important for patients with chemical and environmental sensitivity. It is mucolytic and can improve mucous buildup in the lung and improve asthma. It is used as a prescription drug for oral and nasal application. NAC increases influenza virus specific lymphocyte proliferation, INF-gamma production and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte production to augment immune function. It has been shown to control EBV infection by reducing its replication and spread. NAC may block certain receptors interacting with viruses. Most of the antiviral work has focused on NAC's potent anti-HIV activity. Its antiviral activity against HIV is more potent when combined with vitamin C and glutathione (GSH). NAC increases the immunological function of NK and T cells in HIV infected patients. Depletion of NAC has adverse effects on macrophage and phagocyte function. NAC raises intracellular glutathione levels which is important for cell integrity. GSH and NAC may prevent/repair neuronal cell death by viruses such as HIV. NAC may be important to prevent and treat the memory and concentration impairments associated with CFS. Therapeutic doses range from 2000-4000 mg of NAC/day. Some practitioners add 1000-2000 mg of GSH since NAC and GSH together have a greater antiviral effect.

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #10 on: September 17, 2007, 12:50:26 PM »
http://www.aidsmap.com/en/docs/95651007-A506-448B-B758-7DB10FF59BCC.asp

If we combine following two statements:

1) "The trace element selenium combines with glutathione to make the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase."

2) "...improvements in people given n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, since glutathione itself is not well absorbed orally. "

Maybe it is not necessary to take GSH at all? Anyway we can draw the conclusion:
NAC + selenium ==>  glutathione peroxidase.

Furthermore:

"Its [NAC] antiviral activity against HIV is more potent when combined with vitamin C and glutathione (GSH)."

"Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA): The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is another effective GSH repleter. Orally, it raises GSH levels in HIV patients, and is extremely safe and well tolerated. ALA is a broad-spectrum, fat- and water-phase antioxidant with potent electron-donating capacity, and has added biochemical versatility as a Krebs cycle cofactor and transition metal chelator. It is superior to NAC in being recyclable in vivo from its oxidized form." (http://www.woodmed.com/Glutathione%202002.htm)

Looking at the statements above, we write multi-vitamin recipe:
 
NAC + ALA + selenium + vitamin C

Dosing info: http://www.aidsinfonyc.org/hivplus/issue1/soc/care.html (Warning: this site advocates the use of zinc-tablets. Do not take zinc because according to some, it speeds up disease progression to AIDS. I bet one should not take zinc.)
« Last Edit: September 17, 2007, 01:17:26 PM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #11 on: September 18, 2007, 12:58:12 PM »
This study suggests that vitamin A may not be beneficial for HIV patients. However, taking vitamins in vitamin B-complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E were associated with longer survival.

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2004-releases/press06302004.html

 A simple daily regimen of multivitamins can significantly delay the progress of the AIDS virus according to the results of a study of HIV infected women in Tanzania. Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health and the Muhimbili University College of Health Services in Dar es Salaam, found that women taking multivitamins (vitamins B-complex, C and E) significantly delayed the progression of HIV disease compared to those in the study who received the placebo. The study results appear in the July 1, 2004 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

This is a very good article on supplements:
http://www.hivhsn.org/vitaminsandsupplements
« Last Edit: September 18, 2007, 01:54:39 PM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #12 on: September 19, 2007, 01:13:09 PM »
TH1/TH2-BALANCE


First some theory...

Early in HIV infection, TH1-responsive T-cells predominate and are effective in controlling (but not eliminating) the virus. At some point, a (relative) loss of the TH1 response occurs and TH2 HIV-responsive cells predominate. Progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals has been associated to a shift from TH1 to TH2 cells. The hypothesis is therefore that the TH2-dominated humoral response is not effective at maintaining HIV replication at a low level and the virus load builds up, resulting in AIDS.



ANTI-BODY RESPONSE (Th2-response) HAS LIMITED EFFECT BECAUSE OF CONTINUOUS VIRUS-MUTATION

http://www.answers.com/topic/hiv

HIV's main target is the population of CD4 T cells within a host's body. HIV kills them in one of three ways. It kills them directly by reproducing within them, then breaking them upon exit; it kills them indirectly by causing the cells to "commit suicide" by inducing apoptosis; or it kills them indirectly by triggering other immune cells to recognize the infected T cell and kill it as part of the immune system's normal function.

As infected T cells die, the immune system generates more to take their place. As new T cells become infected, they are either actively killed or induced to commit suicide. Meanwhile, the HIV virus is not completely hidden from the immune system. As with any infectious agent, HIV presents its proteins to the immune system, which develops antibodies against it. This antibody production, however, is hampered by the fact that HIV mutates rapidly, changing the proteins it displays to the immune system. With each new protein, the immune system must generate new antibodies to fight the infection. Thus, an HIV infection is a dramatic balance between a replicating, ever changing virus and the replenishing stores of T cells that are fighting it. Unfortunately, the immune system, without therapeutic intervention, eventually loses the battle.



http://www.answers.com/topic/adaptive-immune-system

The Th1 response is characterized by the production of Interferon-gamma, which activates the bactericidal activities of macrophages, and induces B-cells to make opsonizing (coating) antibodies, and leads to "cell-mediated immunity" [1].

The Th2 response is characterized by the release of Interleukin 4, which results in the activation of B-cells to make neutralizing (killing) antibodies, leading to "humoral immunity".[1]

Generally, Th1 responses are more effecitve against intracellular pathogens (viruses and bacteria that are inside host cells), while Th2 responses are more effective against extracellular bacteria, parasites and toxins[1]. Like cytotoxic T-cells, most of the CD4+ helper cells will die upon resolution of infection, with a few remaining as CD4+ memory cells.



SINCE HIV USES EVOLUTIONARY (EVER MUTATING) APPROACH, IT CANNOT BE WON BY STATIC Th2-APPROACH. Th2-approach will not work on mutating viruses. Massive bombardment with antibodies does not work because HIV mutates to anti-body-resistant form. And antibody re-formulation is too slow process in the body. HIV must be fought off with Th1-type strategy. To put it short: "Th2 is bad, Th1 is good".


AS WE HAVE NOTED EARLIER IN THIS THREAD, SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BEEN PROVEN TO INHIBIT HIV PROGRESSION. One suggested mechanism is that Selenium accopmlishes a shift from Th2 to Th1 -type response. Another is that selenium is an anti-oxidant.



Selenium and Interleukins in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.

Baum MK, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

 
An important role for selenium in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has been proposed. Decreased selenium levels, as found in persons with HIV infection or AIDS, are sensitive markers of disease progression. Selenium deficiency, an independent predictor of mortality in both HIV-1-infected adults and children, is an essential micronutrient that is associated with an improvement of T cell function and reduced apoptosis in animal models. In addition, adequate selenium may enhance resistance to infections through modulation of interleukin (IL) production and subsequently the Th1/Th2 response. Selenium supplementation up-regulates IL-2 and increases activation, proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death of T helper cells. Moreover, selenium supplementation may down-regulate the abnormally high levels of IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha observed in HIV disease, which has been associated with neurologic damage, Kaposi's sarcoma, wasting syndrome, and increased viral replication. Together, these findings suggest a new mechanism through which selenium may affect HIV-1 disease progression.



Once we understand how selenium works, we are maybe able to selectively boost this effect. There is a number of other substances known to activate Th1-response. I will try to collect some information below.
« Last Edit: September 19, 2007, 01:16:27 PM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #13 on: September 19, 2007, 01:25:48 PM »

After the theory part, it is time to find out which substances could increase Th1-respose: I made a google search and found following statements:


*** Vitamins C, E, and B6 increase T-helper1 function [2]. Ascorbic acid (C), tocopherol (E) and pyridoxine (B6) enhance Th1 function, while vitamin A, D, and B12 inhibit it.  [2] = Long KZ,Santos JI. "Vitamins and the regulation of the immune response." Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1999 Mar;18:283-90. (Issue number 3)

*** When selenium-deficient animals are supplemented with selenium, IL-2 action (Th1) is enhanced.


Doesnt this match with the nutritional supplement -experiment of Tanzania? Vitamin A had negative effect, Vitamins C, E and B had positive. So the test of Tanzania was based on Th1-response boosting. What do you guys think?



Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #14 on: September 20, 2007, 02:44:03 PM »


I am now using the protocol below:

Vitamin B (all vitamins of this group, including niacin/nicotinamide)
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Selenium
NAC
ALA

I do not take Zinc or vitamin A as supplemet.  Zinc and vit-A are both necessary for several vital functions so we should not avoid them alltogether... but i am not taking them as daily supplements. I try to eat healthy.

I read ALA and NAC is found in many foods (red meat...), so maybe it is not necessary to take these?

In addition to what was listed above,  i now take OLE + monolaurin, but the effect of these have not been confirmed by adequate scientific studies. Just testing. Green tea i already abandonded as herbal therapy. I occasionally drink it.



Offline Smoothstone

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #15 on: September 22, 2007, 03:54:24 AM »
Thanks for the information and perspectives.  Some of this is new and stimulating. Hank

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #16 on: September 24, 2007, 03:20:32 PM »
Look at this article:

http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/HIV_interleukin_immune_1667_13049.shtml

There have also been concerns that IL-2’s ability to increase CD4 cell counts has a drawback. With the CD4 count jump, there is a greater number of cellular targets for HIV to attack, potentially causing viral load to skyrocket. In turn, experts have remained cautious about using IL-2 in the absence of antiretroviral therapy to keep viral load in check.

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, CTL or killer T cell) belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) .
CD8+ T cells are recognized as TC cells once they become activated and are generally classified as having a pre-defined cytotoxic role within the immune system.  I suppose having high TC count is good, but to have high CD4+ T-cell count is probably not desirable, especially when viral load is high.   CD4+ T-cell count should be high enough to suppress opportunistic infections. Keeping CD4+ count at some conservative range denies HIV the opportunity to infect new hosts. Remember this when considering herbs or medicines that reportedly increase CD4+ count.

Two types of effector CD4+ T helper cell responses can be induced, designated Th1 and Th2, each designed to eliminate different types of pathogens.  The idea of nutritional "therapy" is ensure that all necessary ingredients are present in the body for the immune system to summon an army of a specific kind of T-cells.

I want to stress that I am not a doctor nor a scientist in the medical field. Discuss your nutritional strategy with a specialist in immunology or other related field of medical sciences.


« Last Edit: September 24, 2007, 03:33:54 PM by Customer »

Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #17 on: September 26, 2007, 11:56:38 AM »

http://www.asthmaworld.org/Th1Th2.htm

A zinc deficiency can lead to a premature transition from efficient Th1-dependent cellular antiviral immune functions to Th2-dependent humoral immune functions.   Deficiencies of zinc, NO (nitrous oxide) and/or GSH shift the Th1/Th2 balance towards Th2, as do deficiencies of any of the essential nutrients (ENs) - a group that includes methionine, cysteine, arginine, vitamins A, B, C and E, zinc and selenium (Se) - because these are necessary for the synthesis and maintenance of sufficient amounts of GSH, MT and NO.


Asthmaworld's opinion about vitamin A is contradictory to what was said in previous posts. There are diffirent opinions found about vitamin A's role. Vitamin A is probably not recommended for HIV-infected.

When you have asthma you can obviously take as much zinc as you wish, but not when you have HIV. HIV needs zinc as one of its building blocks (zinc fingers). So... we both need zinc (for Th1-response), and we must simultaneously avoid it (to deny hiv access to zinc). A moderate intake (not too high, not too low) of zinc is suggested. Find a good dose yourself.

Similar information regarding zinc is found here. Its written for people with hepatitis.

http://www.rienstraclinic.com/health_info/conditions/hepatitis_c/immune_response.html

Zinc and nitrous oxide improve T-helper1 function.[1] Because we make nitrous oxide from the amino acid l-arginine, we may make more of it by taking l-arginine.  A typical dose would be 1000 milligrams daily.  Vitamins C, E, and B6 increase T-helper1 function.[2]

(Should L-arginine be added to the protocol..?  )

I said in an earlier post: "I do not take Zinc or vitamin A as supplemet.  Zinc and vit-A are both necessary for several vital functions so we should not avoid them alltogether... but i am not taking them as daily supplements. I try to eat healthy." This applies to vitamin D as well. I do not take D-vitamin as supplement. For instance:

http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ArtikelNr=107673&Ausgabe=233754&ProduktNr=223977&filename=107673.pdf

Vitamins A and D play important roles in both cell-mediated and humoral antibody response and support a Th2-mediated anti-inflammatory cytokine profile. Vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher susceptibility to infections due to impaired localized innate immunity and defects in antigen-specific cellular immune response.

Vitamins A and D promote Th2 -type of response,
Vitamins C, -B (but not B12) and vitamin E promote Th1-type respose.


Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #18 on: September 26, 2007, 03:53:34 PM »
ANTI-OXIDANTS

Is selenium acting as an anti-oxidant, or is Th1/Th2 balance affected?  The theory of Selenium acting as anti-oxidant is summarized compactly in the following article:

http://www.medibolics.com/Nutritioncharliehandout6_05.pdf

1) The immune system is growing new T cells by the millions every
week. It needs extra vitamins and protein for this.

2) The debris from used-up T cells is now scattered around. These stray
electrons are called "free radicals" and can damage other cells if
not captured and tamed. Anti-oxidant systems in the body clean
up the stray electrons, otherwise there is inflammation, liver
damage, and more growth of HIV.

3) Anti-HIV medicines irritate many cells and these need some extra
repair help.


 

They had outlined a reasonal-looking protocol too. It looks like a good nutritional strategy. I will type it here:

Antioxidant vitamins are:
vitamin C 500 mg 1-2 times a day
Vitamin E 400 iu. 1-2 times a day
Beta carotene 20,000 iu a day, in food!

Antioxidant minerals are:
selenium 200 mcg 1 or 2 times a day
magnesium 400 mg once a day

Liver/nerve repair vitamins are:
B-complex 25 or 50 1 pill a day

Liver repair amino acids are:
N-acetylcysteine 2 grams a day
L-glutamine 5 grams 1 or 2 times a day

Extra antioxidant for liver:
Alpha Lipoic Acid 100mg 1 to 4 a day

Essential fat: Evening Primrose Oil 2 grams a day

Energy that Liver exports: Co-enzyme Q10 100mg 1 pill a day

Mitochondrial toxicity repair: L-Carnitine 1 to 3 gms a day for 1-2 mo.




Offline Customer

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Re: Natural products, vitamins, herbs, ...
« Reply #19 on: October 01, 2007, 04:39:34 PM »


Acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC)

http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/hiv_neuropathy_carnitine_1667_13136.shtml

In a recent article in the journal CNS Drugs, Michael Youle, MD, a noted HIV specialist at London’s Royal Free Hospital, claims that acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC), an over-the-counter amino acid supplement, is a promising treatment for a condition known as peripheral neuropathy.

In the article, Dr. Youle reviews several small studies that have explored whether taking LAC can protect people from developing neuropathy or treat people who have already developed it. One early study found that people who took LAC (1500 mg twice a day) showed evidence of both nerve regeneration and a reduction in painful symptoms. A somewhat larger study, published early this year, found that LAC was significantly better able than a placebo to alleviate neuropathy symptoms.


 


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